Kenneth Arrow’s Theory on Why Fair Voting is Impossible

By Phineas Upham In America, the election cycle is elevated to a level that is nearly sacred. The sanctity of the ballet box relies on our ability to trust that we are voting independent of the influence of others. However, fair voting goes one step further: requiring that voters derive sensible results with ample choice. […]

Betty Shabazz: The Wife of Malcolm X

By Phineas Upham Betty Shabazz was born Betty Dean Sanders, but her birthplace is unknown. She claimed it was in Detroit, Michigan, but records from the period seem to indicate that she had been born in Georgia. Her father abused her, and the state stepped in to take her from her home when she was […]

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The Effects of the Civil War on New York City

By Phin Upham At the time of the American Civil War, New York was finding itself in a very delicate place. As a financial and economic hub, the city relied on the robust Southern economy. This economy was fueled largely by slavery, which was near universally opposed by the North. New York profited from the […]

Henry Flagler

Henry Flagler: One of the Founders of Standard Oil

Standard Oil was not a venture John Rockefeller created, per say. It grew from Rockefeller’s inspiration, but he is quoted as saying that the idea belonged to Henry Flagler. Flagler is an interesting character in the history of Standard Oil. He was introduced to Rockefeller some years prior, when John was working as a youth […]

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The Importance of the Erie Canal

By Phineas Upham During the early 1800s, most transport of goods was confined to using pack animals. In some cases, those animals might draw a cart that could carry more than 250 pounds, but that was about the most one could hope to move any great distance without a great deal of hassle. New York […]

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The Early Days of the NYSE

By Phineas Upham, When the South Seas Company sold its shares at exorbitant prices, many investors were taken for a ride. By1711, the company was worth roughly 1,000 British pounds per share, but the value would plummet within nine years. That event became known as the South Seas Crash and it caused the governmet, which […]

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This Man Mass Produced the World’s First Toothbrush

By Samuel Phineas Upham William Addis is believed to be the first person to properly mass-produce a toothbrush. He was born in 1734, and nothing about his childhood suggests a penchant for oral hygiene. Instead, the origins of the toothbrush, as conceived by Addis, originated in prison. Was it the world’s first toothbrush? Not really. […]

The Secret Life of Robert Maxwell

By Phineas Upham Robert Maxwell was once widely considered to be one of the richest men in the entire world. He was a publishing magnate who held onto a vast empire, until it all crumbled before his death. Maxwell was born to a Jewish family in Czechoslovakia, and his family suffered immensely during the holocaust. […]

Kellogg’s for a Happier, Saner Diet?

By Phineas Upham Founded in 1906, the brand Kellogg’s is one most of us have come to know and love throughout our lifetimes. What might surprise you to learn is that the company was founded by Will Keith Kellogg based on practices he’d picked up at the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. Kellogg was an employee at […]

Knock Out Fat with Boxing

Article by Paleo Forever There are countless methods for working out in order to lose weight. Unfortunately, most of them can feel like torture or they’re just so boring it takes everything you got to not lose interest, even if you are seeing results. Fortunately, with boxing, you’ll have an easy time sticking with it and […]